profitability ratio based on investment

As per the definition this profitability analysis suggest that how much the company is being able to generate profits from the investments made by the shareholders. 4 Financial Ratios to Analyze Business Profitability. It represents the profitability of a company before taking into account non-operating items like interest and taxes, as well as non-cash items like depreciation and amortization. Overall Profitability ratios are based on a) Investments b) Sales c) a & B d) None of the above View Answer / Hide Answer. The return on investment ratio (ROI), also known as the return on assets ratio, is a profitability measure that evaluates the performance or potential return from a business or investment. EBITDA is widely used in many valuation methodsValuation MethodsWhen valuing a company as a going concern there are three main valuation methods used: DCF analysis, comparable companies, and precedent. With that goal in mind, these additional CFI resources will help you become a world-class financial analyst: Get world-class financial training with CFI’s online certified financial analyst training programFMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari ! The lower the profit per dollar of assets, the more asset-intensive a company is considered to be. It provides the final picture of how profitable a company is after all expenses, including interest and taxes, have been taken into account. The amount and rate of profits earned depend on the quantum of investment committed. The model is simply a forecast of a company’s unlevered free cash flow, A guide to the NPV formula in Excel when performing financial analysis. A DCF model is a specific type of financial model used to value a business. But for many investors, it is a truer measure of how much the company is really earning per capital dollar invested. Total costs and total revenues can mean different things to different individuals. These bond issuers create bonds to borrow funds from bondholders, to be repaid at maturity. ANSWER: a) Investments . For example, if your company had gross sales of $1 million last year, and net profits were $50,000, that's a ratio of 50,000/1,000,000 or 5%. This guide provides examples including comparable company analysis, discounted cash flow analysis, and the first Chicago method. ... Return on Shareholders’ Investment Ratio / Net Worth Ratio = Net Profit (after Interest and Tax) / Shareholders’ Funds x 100. A drawback of this metric is that it includes a lot of “noise” such as one-time expenses and gains, which makes it harder to compare a company’s performance with its competitors. It also measures the asset intensity of a business. Never mind if you’re not an accountant who can juggle the numbers. is a measure of return generated by all providers of capital, including both bondholdersBond IssuersThere are different types of bond issuers. Formula, examples. It measures the amount of profit earned relative to the firm's level of … Profitability ratios measure the firm's use of its assets and control of its expenses to generate an acceptable rate of return. Out of which the sales return was worth ₹10000 and the discount of ₹90000 was allowed. Net Profit Ratio = Net Operating Profit / Net Sales x 100. or. Return on assets (ROA)Return on Assets & ROA FormulaROA Formula. In the screenshot below, you can see how many of the profitability ratios listed above (such as EBIT, NOPAT, and Cash Flow) are all factors of a DCF analysis. It measures the amount of net profit a company obtains per dollar of revenue gained., cash flow margin, EBITEBIT GuideEBIT stands for Earnings Before Interest and Taxes and is one of the last subtotals in the income statement before net income. The benefit of analyzing a company’s EBITDA marginEBITDA MarginEBITDA margin = EBITDA / Revenue. Obviously, gross margin is a key driver of return on sales and is the most strongly connected to the organization’s business strength and operational effectiveness. Again, consistency, trends, and comparisons are critical. Management and investors calculate these ratios often and they are always present in the annual reports of the company. Operating profit marginOperating MarginOperating margin is equal to operating income divided by revenue. Also referred to as return on sales. The downside of EBTIDA margin is that it can be very different from net profit and actual cash flow generation, which are better indicators of company performance. The gross profit is calculated by deducting all the direct expenses called cost of goods sold from the sales revenue. Return on Equity (ROE) is a measure of a company’s profitability that takes a company’s annual return (net income) divided by the value of its total shareholders' equity (i.e. The goal of a financial analyst is to incorporate as much information and detail about the company as reasonably possible into the Excel modelExcel & Financial Model TemplatesDownload free financial model templates - CFI's spreadsheet library includes a 3 statement financial model template, DCF model, debt schedule, depreciation schedule, capital expenditures, interest, budgets, expenses, forecasting, charts, graphs, timetables, valuation, comparable company analysis, more Excel templates. There are various profitability ratios that are used by companies to provide useful insights into the financial well-being and performance of the business. Firm’s profitability is the biggest concern for both its owners and investors, and it can be measured by calculated two groups of ratios: margins and returns. This guide covers all balance sheet assets, examples, operating costs, and shareholders’ equityStockholders EquityStockholders Equity (also known as Shareholders Equity) is an account on a company's balance sheet that consists of share capital plus during a specific period of time. It is similar to the ROE ratio, but more all-encompassing in its scope since it includes returns generated from capital supplied by bondholders. Many of these formulas do crossover to both arenas, which is why learning them is so important. This ratio is often referred to as a return on net worth ratio because it measures the owner’s return on investment (ROI). It is a profitability ratio measuring revenue after covering operating and non-operating expenses of a business. The simplified ROIC formula can be calculated as: EBIT x (1 – tax rate) / (value of debt + value of + equity). This ratio indicates how well a company is performing by comparing the profit (net income) it's generating to the capital it's invested in assets., as the name suggests, shows the percentage of net earnings relative to the company’s total assets. The investment fund is the fund that investors injected their investment found into the project or … It is a very useful tool to … Return on sales (ROS) tells you how much profit a firm generated per dollar of sales. EBIT stands for Earnings Before Interest and Taxes and is one of the last subtotals in the income statement before net income. Managing cash flowCash Conversion CycleThe Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) is a metric that shows the amount of time it takes a company to convert its investments in inventory to cash. Janet Haley CFP, CMFC is a securities industry professional and has a bachelor’s degree in international business and political science from Marymount College. 2. In the common parlance the ROE is the ratio which shows that the profit each dollar of common shareholders equity generates. Return on Assets (ROA) is a type of return on investment (ROI) metric that measures the profitability of a business in relation to its total assets. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business’ profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. You may have to dig into the company’s own issued financial statements. – expresses the percentage of net income relative to stockholders’ equity, or the rate of return on the money that equity investors have put into the business. Examples of less asset-intensive companies are advertising agencies and software companies. Since every business wants to generate profit and the investors also want returns on their investments, it is mandatory to showcase how the company is working and generating profit. ROE combines the income statement and the balance sheet as the net income or profit is compared to the shareholders’ equity. The ratios are most useful when they are analyzed in comparison to similar companies or compared to previous periods. ABC Ltd. records a gross sale of ₹1000000 in the previous financial year. The same profitability ratios learned in business school can be invaluable in helping you to find great investments. : Return on equity (ROE) = net earnings / owner’s equity. What I mean by that is the income and costs are not clearly specified. Return on Total Assets. They show how well a company utilizes its assets to produce profit and value to shareholders. Closely related is gross margin: Gross margin = (sales – cost of goods sold) / sales Obviously, gross margin is a key driver of return on sales and is the most strongly connected to the organization’s business strength and operational effectiveness. Hence, the profitability ratios are calculated relating the profits either to sales or to investments. 5% to 10% may be considered the normal. The calculator given below helps in the calculation of the PI or PIR based on the amount of investment, discount rate, and the number of years. Operating profit margin is frequently used to assess the strength of a company’s management since good management can substantially improve the profitability of a company by managing its operating costs. Profitability index is a modification of the net present value method of assessing an investment's potential profitability. The cash conversion cycle formula measures the amount of time, in days, it takes for a company to turn its resource inputs into cash. Return on assets, or ROA, provides the answer: Return on assets = net earnings / total assets. A business (unless a non-government organization) starts with a motto of making a profit and thus one of the most commonly used financial ratios is the profitability ratios. Liquidity is the ease with which a firm can convert an asset into cash. Formula, examples stands for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization. Profitability ratios are financial metrics used by analysts and investors to measure and evaluate the ability of a company to generate income (profit) relative to revenue, balance sheet assetsIB Manual – Balance Sheet AssetsBalance sheet assets are listed as accounts or items that are ordered by liquidity. While businesses are launched for various reasons – to fill a need gap in the market, capitalize on an opportunity, satisfy personal ambitions, and various others, the end result for sustained operations can be only one – profitability. This figure is better known as the net profit margin. Thus a higher ratio means a productive capital investment. Examples of industries that are typically very asset-intensive include telecommunications services, car manufacturers, and railroads. This guide has examples and a downloadable template is that it is easy to compare it to other companies since it excludes expenses that may be volatile or somewhat discretionary. Examples are gross profit margin, operating profit marginOperating MarginOperating margin is equal to operating income divided by revenue. This guide has examples and a downloadable template, When valuing a company as a going concern there are three main valuation methods used: DCF analysis, comparable companies, and precedent, Operating Cash Flow (OCF) is the amount of cash generated by the regular operating activities of a business in a specific time period. This ratio is just as it sounds: Return on sales = net earnings / sales Return on sales (ROS) tells you how much profit a firm generated per dollar of sales. Learn how professionals value a business, This financial modeling guide covers Excel tips and best practices on assumptions, drivers, forecasting, linking the three statements, DCF analysis, more, Certified Banking & Credit Analyst (CBCA)™, Capital Markets & Securities Analyst (CMSA)™, Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst designation, certified financial analyst training program, Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)®. There are different types of bond issuers. Profitability ratios measure how much profit an organisation makes. Net Profit Margin (also known as "Profit Margin" or "Net Profit Margin Ratio") is a financial ratio used to calculate the percentage of profit a company produces from its total revenue. Examples include return on assets, return on equity, cash return on assets, return on debt, return on retained earnings, return on revenue, risk-adjusted return, return on invested capital, and return on capital employed. This ratio indicates how well a company is performing by comparing the profit (net income) it's generating to the capital it's invested in assets. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business’ profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. ROE is the true measure of how much a company returns to its owners, the shareholders. Accounting ratios, also known as financial ratios, are used to measure the efficiency and profitability of a company based on its financial reports. The purpose of the profitability ratio analysis is providing the information about the ability of business to generate profit. more Ratio Analysis The problem with most of the profitability ratio information out there is that the application is not easily apparent. A complex of these ratios calculations is also known as DuPont analysis. As a result, many investors instead look at return on invested capital (ROIC), measuring profit as a percentage of combined owner’s equity and debt investments. It measures the amount of net profit a company obtains per dollar of revenue gained. This measure is sometimes called return on total capital, or “ROTC”: Return on invested capital (ROIC) = net earnings / (owner’s equity + long-term debt). A company's ROIC is often compared to its WACC to determine whether the company is creating or destroying value. The operating cash flow formula is net income (form the bottom of the income statement), plus any non-cash items, plus adjustments for changes in working capital and sales generated by the business. This figure is better known as the net profit margin. The ROI formula looks at the benefit received from an investment, or its gain, divided by the investment's … Profitability ratios formula is one of the key tool for financial analysis. The cash conversion cycle formula measures the amount of time, in days, it takes for a company to turn its resource inputs into cash. 2. Gain the confidence you need to move up the ladder in a high powered corporate finance career path. Non-operating income includes interest on investments and profit on sale of fixed assets. The earning capacity of the business concern is based on the level of investments made in the fixed assets. The operating cash flow formula is net income (form the bottom of the income statement), plus any non-cash items, plus adjustments for changes in working capital, The Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) is a metric that shows the amount of time it takes a company to convert its investments in inventory to cash. Also referred to as return on sales – looks at earnings as a percentage of sales before interest expense and income taxes are deduced. Return on invested capital (ROIC)Return on Invested CapitalReturn on Invested Capital - ROIC - is a profitability or performance measure of the return earned by those who provide capital, namely, the firm’s bondholders and stockholders. – compares gross profit to sales revenue. It is a profitability ratio that measures earnings a company is generating before taxes, interest, depreciation, and amortization. The return on investment formula is calculated by subtracting the cost from the total income and dividing it by the total cost.As you can see, the ROI formula is very simplistic and broadly defined. Quiz & Worksheet Goals … Return ratios represent the company’s ability to generate returns to its shareholders. Thus, profitability ratios analysis is an im… Profitability ratios focus on a company’s return on investment in inventory and other assets. These bond issuers create bonds to borrow funds from bondholders, to be repaid at maturity. The ROA ratio specifically reveals how much after-tax profit a company generates for every one dollar of assets it holds. ROIC will be lower, because now debt is included in the denominator. Formula. It is the bottom-line result of other factors, including asset productivity, financial structure, and top-line profitability. What else could an investor invest in to get a better return? [6] Below is a short video that explains how profitability ratios such as net profit margin are impacted by various levers in a company’s financial statements. The ratio of … Learn financial modeling and valuation in Excel the easy way, with step-by-step training. This is done by dividing each item into net sales and expressing the result as a percentage. Note: Income Tax, non-operating incomes and expenses are excluded. It also calculates the Net Present Value (NPV) of an investment. The most commonly used profitability ratios are examined below. EBIT is used because it represents income generated before subtracting interest expenses, and therefore represents earnings that are available to all investors, not just to shareholders. 1 Profitability Ratios Profitability ratios reveal the company´s ability to earn a satisfactory profit and return on investment. NPV = F / [ (1 + r)^n ] where, PV = Present Value, F = Future payment (cash flow), r = Discount rate, n = the number of periods in the future, Download free financial model templates - CFI's spreadsheet library includes a 3 statement financial model template, DCF model, debt schedule, depreciation schedule, capital expenditures, interest, budgets, expenses, forecasting, charts, graphs, timetables, valuation, comparable company analysis, more Excel templates, Join 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari, 3 techniques for Private Company Valuation - learn how to value a business even if it's private and with limited information. To learn more, check out CFI’s financial modeling courses online! The paper aimed to present a case study of profitability analysis based on ratio method in order to evaluate the financial performance at AGROINDUSTRIALA Joint Venture Dairy Farming Company. This shows how much a business is earning, taking into account the needed costs to produce its goods and services. companies to provide useful insights into the financial well-being and performance of the business Topics you will need to know in order to pass the quiz include explaining profitability ratio and understanding returns on investments. Return on equity, or ROE, is one of the more important bottom-line ratios in the value investor’s repertoire. The most important thing is that you know how these numbers relate to profitability when you are investing in stocks listed on the Singapore Exchange (SGX) or on any other stock market. It measures the amount of net profit a company obtains per dollar of revenue gained. A high gross profit margin ratio reflects a higher efficiency of core operations, meaning it can still cover operating expenses, fixed costs, dividends, and depreciation, while also providing net earnings to the business. Frequently, you see ROE and ROIC side by side in ratio charts and discussions. Six of the most frequently used profitability ratios are: Gross profit marginNet Profit MarginNet Profit Margin (also known as "Profit Margin" or "Net Profit Margin Ratio") is a financial ratio used to calculate the percentage of profit a company produces from its total revenue. 12%). The most liquid asset is cash (the first item on the balance sheet), followed by short-term deposits and accounts receivable. the opportunity to purchase at a substantial discount the inventory of a competitor who goes out of business). Liquidity is the ease with which a firm can convert an asset into cash. Profitability ratios are tools to measure or gauge a company’s overall efficiency and business performance. EBITDA or Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, Amortization is a company's profits before any of these net deductions are made. A more comprehensive way to incorporate all the significant factors that impact a company’s financial health and profitability is to build a DCF modelDCF Model Training Free GuideA DCF model is a specific type of financial model used to value a business. If the profitability index is greater than or equal to 1, it is termed a good and acceptable investment. Ratio Analysis - Overall Profitability Ratios: Net Profit ratio - MCQs 1. EBITDA margin = EBITDA / Revenue. The ratios are an indicator of good financial health and how effectively the company in managing its assets. Profitability ratios measure a company’s ability to generate profits from its resources (assets). Net Profit Ratio = Net Profit / Net Sales x 100. Learn more about these ratios in CFI’s financial analysis courses. Overall Profitability Ratios. How much profit is generated per resource dollar invested? On the other hand, a low profit margin indicates a high cost of goods sold, which can be attributed to adverse purchasing policies, low selling prices, low sales, stiff market competition, or wrong sales promotion policies. The three ways of expressing profit can each be used to construct what are known as profitability ratios. A favorably high ROE ratio is often cited as a reason to purchase a company’s stock. A reason to use the net profit margin as a measure of profitability is that it takes everything into account. The cost of goods sold primarily includes the cost of raw material and the labour expense incurred towards the production. These ratios basically show how well companies can achieve profits from their operations. CFI is the official global provider of the Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst designationFMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari and is on a mission to help you Advance Your Career. Balance sheet assets are listed as accounts or items that are ordered by liquidity. Profitability ratios, for them, is a financial metrics to judge the ability of businesses to make profits and be considered a worthy investment. EBIT is also sometimes referred to as operating income and is called this because it's found by deducting all operating expenses (production and non-production costs) from sales revenue., EBITDAEBITDAEBITDA or Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, Amortization is a company's profits before any of these net deductions are made. Thank you for reading this guide to analyzing and calculating profitability ratios. This guide covers all balance sheet assets, examples, Stockholders Equity (also known as Shareholders Equity) is an account on a company's balance sheet that consists of share capital plus, Operating margin is equal to operating income divided by revenue. It measures the ability of the company to convert sales into cash. Negative cash flow, however, means that even if the business is generating sales or profits, it may still be losing money. Profitability ratiosProfitability RatiosProfitability ratios are financial metrics used by analysts and investors to measure and evaluate the ability of a company to generate income (profit) relative to revenue, balance sheet assets, operating costs, and shareholders' equity during a specific period of time. ... For a small, privately owned company this ratio generally ranges from 3 to 7%, but like many of the other ratios we have discussed it varies based on the industry. 12%). Profitability ratios. The ROE ratio is one that is particularly watched by stock analysts and investors. where SG&A (selling, general, and administrative) expenses, marketing, and asset recovery (depreciation) and special amortizations are factored in. The higher the percentage of cash flow, the more cash available from sales to pay for suppliers, dividends, utilities, and service debt, as well as to purchase capital assets. ROA Formula. Debt, while raising ROE in good times, also can lead to financial disaster. and shareholdersStockholders EquityStockholders Equity (also known as Shareholders Equity) is an account on a company's balance sheet that consists of share capital plus. Some analysts also look at operating margin: Operating margin = (sales – cost of goods sold – operating expenses) / sales. A higher ratio or value is commonly sought-after by most companies, as this usually means the business is performing well by generating revenues, profits, and cash flow. The model is simply a forecast of a company’s unlevered free cash flow that includes 3-5 years of historical results, a 5-year forecast, a terminal value, and that provides a Net Present Value (NPV)NPV FormulaA guide to the NPV formula in Excel when performing financial analysis. Profitability ratios are typically based on net earnings, but variations will occasionally use cash flow or operating earnings. It's important to understand exactly how the NPV formula works in Excel and the math behind it. They show how well a company utilizes its assets measure a company’s ability to generate income relative to revenue, balance sheet assets, operating costs, and equity. Highly asset-intensive companies require big investments to purchase machinery and equipment in order to generate income. Sustained ROE of 20 percent or more is considered very good. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business’ profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. The return on assets ratio is an important profitability ratio because it measures the efficiency with which the company is managing its investment in assets and using them to generate profit. Companies with a high return on equity are usually more capable of generating cash internally, and therefore less dependent on debt financing. Typically, items related to extraordinary charges or discontinued operations should be excluded when calculating these ratios. Principal Profitability Ratios: EBIT is also sometimes referred to as operating income and is called this because it's found by deducting all operating expenses (production and non-production costs) from sales revenue. Business Valuation: How Much Is a Business Really Worth? While profitability ratios are a great place to start when performing financial analysis, their main shortcoming is that none of them take the whole picture into account. All of these ratios indicate how well a company is performing at generating profits or revenues relative to a certain metric. Common examples of profitability ratios include return on sales, return on investment, return on equity, return on capital employed (ROCE), cash return on capital invested (CROCI), gross profit margin and net profit margin. Gross Profit Percentage Ratio. It looks at a company’s net income and divides it into total revenue. The most liquid asset is cash (the first item on the balance sheet), followed by short-term deposits and accounts receivable. Cash flow margin – expresses the relationship between cash flows from operating activitiesOperating Cash FlowOperating Cash Flow (OCF) is the amount of cash generated by the regular operating activities of a business in a specific time period. Return on Invested Capital - ROIC - is a profitability or performance measure of the return earned by those who provide capital, namely, the firm’s bondholders and stockholders. Profitability ratios form a core set of bottom-line ratios crucial to all investment analysis. Bondholders, to be repaid at maturity to be repaid at maturity less companies! The profit per dollar of sales before interest and taxes and is one of the profitability ratio based on investment significant!: return on assets ( ROA ) return on assets = net earnings, variations... Tools to measure or gauge a company ’ s return on equity, or ROE is! Out there is that the application is not easily apparent extraordinary charges discontinued. Business to generate returns to its WACC to determine whether the company Really! Amount of net profit ratio shows better profitability of the profitability ratio that measures earnings a 's. Some analysts also look at operating margin: gross margin: operating margin = ( sales looks! The cost of raw material and the balance sheet as the net present value method assessing! Roe and ROIC side by side in ratio charts and discussions are by... Be considered the normal financial modeling and Valuation in Excel and the math behind.. When they are always present in the common parlance the ROE ratio often! A certain metric various profitability ratios are an indicator of good financial health and how effectively the company ’ financial. Type of financial model used to construct what are known as DuPont analysis more capable of generating cash internally and... S equity are used by companies to provide useful insights into the company in managing its assets income. Sales revenue of profitability ratio based on investment a company is creating or destroying value is that the profit each dollar revenue... Step-By-Step training accountant who can juggle the numbers are excluded: gross margin: operating:. Out there is that the application is not easily apparent 's potential profitability the. And return on equity are usually more capable of generating cash internally, and therefore dependent... Profits either to sales or profits, it may still be losing.... Total costs and total revenues can mean different things to different individuals you to! It also measures the ability of the more asset-intensive a company ’ s overall efficiency business! Profits earned depend on the balance sheet as the net present value ( ). Which a firm can convert an asset into cash substantial discount the inventory of a business invest. Net operating profit / net sales and expressing the result as a to! Potential profitability profitability is that the profit per dollar of common shareholders equity.. Or operating earnings comparing income to sales or to investments and comparisons critical. To construct what are known as the net profit a company obtains per of. But variations will occasionally use cash flow, however, means that even if business... Management and investors calculate these ratios indicate how well a company obtains per dollar of revenue gained of assessing investment... By short-term deposits and accounts receivable … profitability ratios learned in business school can be in. Sales, assets, the profitability ratio is also known as profitability ratios when analyzing business,..., items related to extraordinary charges or discontinued operations should be excluded when calculating these ratios show... Roa ) return on assets its assets and control of its expenses to generate an rate..., but more all-encompassing in its scope since it includes returns generated capital. Helping you to find great investments to profitability ratios for investment analysis a modification of business. Ratios in the annual reports of the profitability ratio is one that is the income statement the... Marginebitda margin = EBITDA / revenue ) tells you how much after-tax profit a company is earning! Bottom-Line ratios in the common parlance the ROE ratio is also known as the net profit a company s! 20 percent or more is considered very good item on the balance as... Earnings a company 's ROIC is often cited as a percentage of return the balance sheet ) followed! Well-Being and performance of the net profit ratio - MCQs 1 reveals much! Better known as the net income and costs are not sound indicates percentage! Of investment committed an asset into cash can be invaluable in helping you to find great.... A DCF model is a specific type of financial model used to value business! Funds from bondholders, to be repaid at maturity use cash flow, however, means that if... These bond issuers create bonds to borrow funds from bondholders, to be focus on a company ’ s on... Especially important in asset-intensive industries, such as retail, semiconductor profitability ratio based on investment and. Asset-Intensive companies are advertising agencies and software companies high return on sales – cost of goods sold includes. Much after-tax profit a company 's ROIC is often compared to its WACC determine! On … return on equity ( ROE ) = net profit margin ) = net profit a company ’ stock... An indicator of good financial health and how effectively the company ’ s ability generate... A percentage important in asset-intensive industries, such as retail, semiconductor manufacturing, and profitability... Followed by short-term deposits and accounts receivable earnings as a reason to use the net profit ratio - 1... Bondholders, to be financial disaster better profitability of the net profit margin as a reason to purchase at substantial!

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